Brief look up on creativity in psychology and cognitive science

Art of Thought (Graham Wallas & Richard Smith, 1926)
A 5 stages creative process model was proposed:
1. Preparation (focuses on the problem and explores the problem's dimensions),
2. Incubation (the problem is internalized into the unconscious mind),
3. Intimation (one feels that a solution is on its way),
4. Illumination or insight (the idea turns from its preconscious processing into conscious awareness); and
5. Verification (where the idea is consciously verified, elaborated, and then applied).

Guilford (1950) He introduced the concept of convergent and divergent thinking. Convergent thinking involves aiming for a single, correct solution to a problem, whereas divergent thinking involves creative generation of multiple answers to a set problem.

Koestler (1964) "Creativity arises as a result of the intersection of two quite different frames of reference."

Something I don’t like about Graham & Richard’s 5 stages model is that the incubation/intimation stages rely so much on one’s unconscious mind, which is difficult to understand. The “novel and appropriate” model from Defying the Crowd, by Sternberg & Lubart is a simpler but better one. This model seems a generalization of all other models.

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